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Surrealismus, Expressionismus, Nabis & Andere Stile - Kunstgeschichte Informationen

Surrealism
Artistic and literary movement that explored and celebrated the realm of dreams and the unconscious mind through the creation of visual art, poetry, and motion pictures. Surrealism was officially launched in Paris, France, in 1924, when French writer Andre Breton wrote the first surrealist manifesto, outlining the ambitions of the new movement. (Breton published two more surrealist manifestoes, in 1930 and 1942.) The movement soon spread to other parts of Europe and to North and South America. Among surrealism is most important contributions was the invention of new artistic techniques that tapped into the artist's unconscious mind.

Dada
Early 20th-century art movement, whose members sought to ridicule the culture of their time through deliberately absurd performances, poetry, and visual art. Dadaists embraced the extraordinary, the irrational, and the contradictory largely in reaction to the unprecedented and incomprehensible brutality of World War I (1914-1918). Their work was driven in part by a belief that deep-seated European values-nationalism, militarism, and even the long tradition of rational philosophy-were implicated in the horrors of the war. Dada is often described as nihilistic-that is, rejecting all moral values; however, dadaists considered their movement an affirmation of life in the face of death.

Expressionism
in the visual, literary, and performing arts, a movement or tendency that strives to express subjective feelings and emotions rather than to depict reality or nature objectively. The movement developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a reaction against the academic standards that had prevailed in Europe since the Renaissance (1300-1600), particularly in French and German art academies. In expressionism the artist tries to present an emotional experience in its most compelling form. The artist is not concerned with reality as it appears but with its inner nature and with the emotions aroused by the subject. To achieve these ends, the subject is frequently caricatured, exaggerated, distorted, or otherwise altered in order to stress the emotional experience in its most intense and concentrated form.

Although the term expressionism was not applied to painting until 1911, the qualities attributed to expressionism are found in the art of almost every country and period. Some Chinese and Japanese art emphasizes the essential qualities of the subject rather than its physical appearance. Painters and sculptors of medieval Europe exaggerated their work for the Romanesque and early Gothic cathedrals to intensify the spiritual expressiveness of the subjects. Intense religious emotions expressed through distortion are found also in the 16th-century works of the Spanish painter El Greco and the German painter Matthias Grunewald. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh, the French artist Paul Gauguin and the Norwegian painter Edvard Munch used violent colors and exaggerated lines to obtain intense emotional expression.

The most important expressionist group in the 20th century was the German school. The movement was originated by the painters Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, who in 1905 organized a group in Dresden called Die Brucke. They were joined in 1906 by Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein and in 1910 by Otto Muller. In 1912 this group exhibited paintings along with a Munich group that called itself Der Blaue Reiter. The latter included the German painters Franz Marc, August Macke and Heinrich Campendonk; the Swiss artist Paul Klee, and the Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky. This phase of expressionism in Germany was marked by the conscious exposition of emotions and a heightened sense of the possibilities for expressive content. Die Brucke was dissolved by 1913, and World War I (1914-1918) halted most group activity. The fauves in France, as well as the French painter Georges Braque and the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso, at a certain period of their development, were influenced by expressionism.

A new phase of German expressionism called Die Neue Sachlichkeit grew out of the disillusionment following World War I. Founded by Otto Dix and George Grosz, it was characterized by both a concern for social truths and an attitude of satiric bitterness and cynicism. Expressionism meanwhile had become an international movement, and the influence of the Germans is seen in the works of such artists as the Austrian painter Oskar Kokoschka, the French artist Georges Rouault, the Lithuanian-born French painter Chaim Soutine, the Bulgarian-born French painter Jules Pascin, and the American painter Max Weber.

Abstract expressionism appeared in the United States following the end of World War II in 1945. Abstract expressionist painters, such as Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, and Jackson Pollock, attempted to transmit basic emotions through vivid colors, bold forms, and spontaneous methods of dripping and flinging paint-all without recognizable subjects.

Expressionist sculpture has its roots in the work of the 19th-century French sculptor Auguste Rodin, who expressed the inner states of his subjects within representational forms. He strongly influenced the work of his assistant Antoine Bourdelle, the British sculptor Jacob Epstein, and the German Ernst Barlach. All of their work, expressed in the human figure, involves various forms of distortion, such as exaggeration, elongation, and massiveness.

Nabis
group of French painters, active from 1889 to 1899, who practiced a colorful postimpressionist style with symbolist overtones. They were influenced principally by the French painter Paul Gauguin's flat, brilliant colors and by the sinuous lines of art nouveau. The group included Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis, Edouard Vuillard, Felix Vallotton and Paul Serusier.